Leaf: Evergreen needles, 4 to 7 inches long in fascicles of 3, occasionally 4, straight, dark yellow green.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, purple to yellow, in clumps at ends of twig; females light green to red, at ends of new growth.
Fruit: A globe-shaped cone, 2 to 3 inches long, armed with a small spine. They remain closed and persist on the tree for several years.
Twig: Slender to moderately stout, light brown, reddish brown buds.
Bark: Dark brown, broken into irregular, flattened, somewhat scaly plates.
Form: Upright tree to 70 feet, trunk often twisted with numerous sprouts and a thin crown.
Looks like: pitch pine - loblolly pine - shortleaf pine - spruce pine
Additional Range Information: Pinus serotina is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Wood
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information