Leaf: Evergreen needles, 2 1/2 to 5 inches long, with three twisted needles per fascicle, yellow-green to green.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in large clusters at twig tips; females yellow to red, with small, curved scales.
Fruit: Cones are ovoid, 2 to 4 inches long, light brown in color; umbo is armed with a short, stout prickle; cones are often persistent for many years; maturing in fall.
Twig: Orange-brown and moderately stout; buds narrowly ovoid, light gray-brown.
Bark: Dark and scaly when young, developing red-brown or yellow-brown thick flat plates with deep furrows; sprouts of needles may be present.
Form: Extremely variable; short and poorly formed on poor sites, but can be a straight, medium sized tree reaching 80 feet tall on better sites; epicormic sprouting is common.
Looks like: loblolly pine - shortleaf pine - pond pine - Table Mountain pine
Additional Range Information: Pinus rigida is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Wood - Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information