shortleaf pine Pinaceae Pinus echinata Mill. Listen to the Latin play symbol: PIEC2 Other Fact Sheets
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch), slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color, fascicle sheath is persistent.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.
Fruit: Egg-shaped cone, 2 inches long, somewhat persistent; red to brown in color, umbo is armed with a small prickle, maturing in fall; scales stay relatively flexible.
Twig: Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.
Bark: Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing flat, scaly plates; very small (pencil point) resin pockets or "Volcanoes" may be apparent.
Form: A medium to large tree with a straight, well pruned trunk, able to reach over 100 feet tall; typically has a small, open, pyramidal crown.

Looks like: pitch pine - loblolly pine - Virginia pine - Table Mountain pine
leaf flower fruit twig bark form1 map
Additional Range Information:
Pinus echinata is native to North America.
Range may be expanded by planting.
See states reporting shortleaf pine.
More: Wood
External Links:
USDAFS Silvics of North America
USDAFS Additional Silvics
Landowner Factsheet
USDA Plants Database
© Copyright 2016, Virginia Tech
Dept. of Forest Resources
and Environmental Conservation,
all rights reserved.
Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson
Virginia Tech Homepage CNRE FREC