|Leaf: Evergreen needles, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 inches long, with 2 twisted, yellow-green, stout needles per fascicle.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males long, cylindrical, purple to yellow, clustered near branch tips; females green to light purple, often in clusters.
Fruit: Cones are ovoid, three inches long and very stout, dark red-brown and the umbo is armed with a large, thick, curved spine, sessile and persistent, often in whorls; maturing in the fall.
Twig: Moderately stout and tough, orange-brown in color; buds are narrowly ovoid, light brown and often resinous.
Bark: Scaly, dark red-brown or gray in color, eventually developing irregular plates with very scaly surfaces.
Form: A small to medium sized tree up to 65 feet tall with an irregular crown that supports several large, heavy branches, often with numerous, persistent, closed cones.
Looks like: Virginia pine
- pitch pine
- shortleaf pine