red spruce Pinaceae Picea rubens Sarg. Listen to the Latin symbol: PIRU Other Fact Sheets
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 1/2 to 5/8 inch long, sharply pointed and four-sided, tending to curve upwards, shiny yellow-green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical reddish but turning yellow-brown; females purplish green.
Fruit: Chestnut brown ovoid cone, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, cone scale margins entire; seed disseminated in the fall and cones tend to drop their first winter.
Twig: Orangish brown, finely hairy (may need a hand lens); as with all spruces, needleless twigs covered by short sterigmata (short pegs); buds orange-brown, small with loose scales.
Bark: Grayish brown on surface, more reddish brown beneath with irregular, fine flaky patches.
Form: Upright and straight, with a narrow crown; reaching a height of 60 to 80 feet and a diameter of 1 to 2 feet.

Looks like: white spruce - black spruce - Norway spruce - blue spruce
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map
Additional Range Information:
Picea rubens is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. See states reporting red spruce.
More: Wood
External Links:
USDAFS Silvics of North America
USDAFS Additional Silvics
Landowner Factsheet
USDA Plants Database
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Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson
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