red spruce Pinaceae Picea
|Leaf: Evergreen needles, 1/2 to 5/8 inch long, sharply pointed and four-sided, tending to curve upwards, shiny yellow-green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical reddish but turning yellow-brown; females purplish green.
Fruit: Chestnut brown ovoid cone, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, cone scale margins entire; seed disseminated in the fall and cones tend to drop their first winter.
Twig: Orangish brown, finely hairy (may need a hand lens); as with all spruces, needleless twigs covered by short sterigmata (short pegs); buds orange-brown, small with loose scales.
Bark: Grayish brown on surface, more reddish brown beneath with irregular, fine flaky patches.
Form: Upright and straight, with a narrow crown; reaching a height of 60 to 80 feet and a diameter of 1 to 2 feet.
Looks like: white spruce
- black spruce
- Norway spruce
- blue spruce
| Additional Range Information:
Picea rubens is native to North America.
Range may be expanded by planting.
See states reporting red spruce.
| External Links:
Silvics of North America
USDA Plants Database
|© Copyright 2015, Virginia Tech|
Dept. of Forest Resources
and Environmental Conservation,
all rights reserved.
Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson