black spruce Pinaceae Picea
mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
|Leaf: Evergreen, four-sided needles, stiff, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, light blue-green in color, somewhat blunt pointed tips, light blue-green to gray.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males red, turning yellow to light brown; females purple, upright, and in the upper crowns.
Fruit: Ovoid cones are the smallest of the spruces, 1 inch long, scale margins are rounded and finely erose; maturing in late summer with seeds disseminating in early fall.
Twig: Slender, brown and pubescent; needles are borne on woody pegs; buds are small, gray-brown with loose scales.
Bark: Thin, gray-brown or red-brown in color, broken into irregular, close scales.
Form: Small to medium sized trees up to 70 feet tall with a very narrow conical or spire-like crown and a poorly pruned trunk.
Looks like: white spruce
- red spruce
- Sitka spruce
- blue spruce
| Additional Range Information:
Picea mariana is native to North America.
Range may be expanded by planting.
See states reporting black spruce.
| External Links:
Silvics of North America
USDA Plants Database
|© Copyright 2016, Virginia Tech|
Dept. of Forest Resources
and Environmental Conservation,
all rights reserved.
Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson