|Leaf: Evergreen needles, stiff, 1/2 to 1 inch long, 4-angled but somewhat flattened, with a sharp pointed tip, shiny deep green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males yellow-brown in large groups; females upright, purple.
Fruit: Cones are very large, cylindrical, 4 to 6 inches long, with stiff, thin scales that are irregularly toothed, chestnut brown, maturing in fall.
Twig: Slender to medium in size, lacking hair, shiny orangish brown; needles are borne on woody pegs; buds with very loose, orange-brown scales (resembles a rose).
Bark: Red-brown and scaly, later turning gray with flaking scales or plates.
Form: A medium to large tree with conical form capable of reaching over 120 feet tall, with horizontal to upward sweeping branches that often droop branchlets.
Looks like: red spruce
- Oriental spruce
- Brewer spruce
- Serbian spruce