black mangrove Verbenaceae Avicennia
germinans (L.) L. symbol: AVGE
Leaf: Opposite, simple, evergreen, leathery, elliptical to obovate, 2 to 5 inches long, dark green above, silvery hairy below, may have salt deposits on their upper surfaces due to salt excretion.
Flower: White, 4 petaled flowers, occurring in cone-shaped clusters, 1 to 2 inches long near branch tips.
Fruit: Egg-shaped capsule 1 to 2 inches long, containing one lima bean-shaped seed.
Twig: Stout, slightly angled, finely hairy, and initially green but turning grayish brown.
Bark: Dark gray and finely scaly.
Form: Bushy tree (50 feet tall) that forms dense thickets, trunk divides close to the ground, numerous finger like roots (pneumatophores) occur around the base of the tree.
Looks like: buttonwood - white mangrove - red mangrove - pond apple
Additional Range Information: Avicennia germinans is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. See states reporting black mangrove.
External Links: USDA Plants Database - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2018 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range maps courtesy USGS from USDA "Atlas of United States Trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr., Vol. 1 (1971) 3 (1976) 4 (1977) 5 (1978)