black mangrove Verbenaceae Avicennia germinans (L.) L. Listen to the Latin symbol: AVGE Other Fact Sheets
Leaf: Opposite, simple, evergreen, leathery, elliptical to obovate, 2 to 5 inches long, dark green above, silvery hairy below, may have salt deposits on their upper surfaces due to salt excretion.
Flower: White, 4 petaled flowers, occurring in cone-shaped clusters, 1 to 2 inches long near branch tips.
Fruit: Egg-shaped capsule 1 to 2 inches long, containing one lima bean-shaped seed.
Twig: Stout, slightly angled, finely hairy, and initially green but turning grayish brown.
Bark: Dark gray and finely scaly.
Form: Bushy tree (50 feet tall) that forms dense thickets, trunk divides close to the ground, numerous finger like roots (pneumatophores) occur around the base of the tree.

Looks like: buttonwood - white mangrove - red mangrove - pond apple
leaf twig bark form1 map
Additional Range Information:
Avicennia germinans is native to North America.
Range may be expanded by planting.
See states reporting black mangrove.
External Links:
USDA Plants Database
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Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson
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