black walnut Juglandaceae Juglans
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 12 to 24 inches long with 10 to 24 leaflets (poorly formed or missing terminal leaflet), leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, finely serrate, and 3 to 3 1/2 inches long, rachis is stout and somewhat pubescent; yellow-green to green above, slightly paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males are single-stemmed catkins, 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 inches long; females on short spikes near twig end, yellow-green in color, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Round, 2 to 2 1/2 inches across, with a thick, green indehiscent husk. The husk contains an irregularly furrowed, hard nut that contains sweet, oily meat (edible), mature in late summer to fall.
Twig: Stout, light brown, with a buff-colored chambered pith; buds are tan, and large with a few pubescent scales; leaf scars are 3-lobed, resembling a "monkey face".
Bark: Brown on surface, darker brown when cut, ridged and furrowed with a rough diamond pattern.
Form: A medium to large tree up to 100 feet in height that developes a straight, clear bole with a narrow crown under competition, twigs and branches quite stout.
Looks like: butternut - Kentucky coffeetree - tree-of-Heaven - English walnut
Additional Range Information: Juglans nigra is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Fall Color - Wood - Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - Horticulture Information - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2021 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information