Leaf: Evergreen, very small, with two types of leaves (often on the same tree), scale-like leaves 1/16 inch long, dark green, with 4 sides held tightly to twig and longer (1/4 inch), dark blue-green needle-like leaves that are more common on young trees and fast growing shoots.
Flower: Species is dioecious, but occasionally monoecious; males are small, yellow-brown, occurring in large groups; females are light blue-green.
Fruit: Berry-like cones, light green in spring, turning dark blue and glaucous at maturity, about 1/4 inch in diameter, appearing in spring and maturing in the fall.
Twig: Green for several years, covered in scales, later turning brown.
Bark: Red-brown in color, exfoliating in long, fibrous strips, often ashy gray where exposed.
Form: A small tree with a dense ovoid or columnar crown reaching up to 60 feet tall.
Looks like: Atlantic white-cedar - common juniper - Chinese juniper - redberry juniper
Additional Range Information: Juniperus virginiana is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Wood - Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - Horticulture Information - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information