buckthorn bumelia Sapotaceae Sideroxylon lycioides L. Listen to the Latin symbol: SILY Other Fact Sheets
Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen to deciduous farther north, obovate, ovate, or nearly lanceolate, entire, wedge-shaped at both tips, with a milky sap when broken, to 6 inches, shiny dark green above, paler and may be somewhat pubescent below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; white, and round-clustered, tiny individual flowers with 5 petals, early to midsummer.
Fruit: Egg-shaped and shiny, red ripening to nearly black fleshy fruits, 1/2 inch long, ripening in the fall.
Twig: Slender, spur shoots present, buds dome-shaped to conical and yellow-green, leaf scars circular, with a milky sap when broken. Twigs often armed with stout, unbranched 1 inch thorns at each leaf scar.
Bark: Initially smooth, becoming broken and then scaly, older trees scaly and shedding to reveal red inner bark.
Form: Shrub or small tree to 30 feet.

Looks like: gum bumelia - osage-orange - common buckthorn - blackgum
leaf twig map
Additional Range Information:
Sideroxylon lycioides is native to North America.
Range may be expanded by planting.
See states reporting buckthorn bumelia.
External Links:
USDA Plants Database
© Copyright 2016, Virginia Tech
Dept. of Forest Resources
and Environmental Conservation,
all rights reserved.
Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson
Virginia Tech Homepage CNRE FREC