osage-orange Moraceae Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid. Listen to the Latin symbol: MAPO Other Fact Sheets
Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 2 to 5 inches long, oblong to ovate with an acuminate tip, margins entire, upper surface shiny.
Flower: Species is dioecious; females are borne in dense, round, clusters; males borne in subglobose racemes; neither showy, appearing late spring to early summer.
Fruit: A large, round multiple of drupes 4 to 5 inches in diameter, with a very distinctive citrus smell; the outer surface looks like "brains"; when crushed, a white, milky juice is exuded, maturing in early fall.
Twig: Moderately slender, zigzag, green changing to buff or orange-brown. Twigs are armed with stout, unbranched thorns at each leaf scar. A milky sap is exuded when cut.
Bark: Orange-brown, developing scaly ridges with irregular furrows.
Form: A medium sized tree with a short trunk. The crown is irregular, with stiff, spiny branches.

Looks like: red mulberry - white mulberry - gum bumelia
leaf flower fruit twig bark form1 map
Additional Range Information:
Maclura pomifera is native to North America.
Range may be expanded by planting.
See states reporting osage-orange.
More: Fall Color Wood
External Links:
USDAFS Silvics of North America
USDAFS Additional Silvics
USDA Plants Database
© Copyright 2016, Virginia Tech
Dept. of Forest Resources
and Environmental Conservation,
all rights reserved.
Photos and text by: John Seiler,
Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera,
and John Peterson
Virginia Tech Homepage CNRE FREC