quadrifolia Parl. ex Sudw.
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 1 to 2 inches long in fascicles of 4 (occasionally 3 or 5), stout, slightly incurved towards branches, sharp pointed, fascicle sheath deciduous, green on outside, with white stomatal bands on inner edges.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males pale yellow to red, cylindrical in tight clusters at ends of branches; females purplish, singly or in small groups at branch tips.
Fruit: Woody, broadly ovoid cone, yellow-brown, very short stalked, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long, resinous; thick, broad, 4-angled scales with a small prickle, deeply recessed where they held two large wingless seeds; remain on tree for many years.
Twig: Slender to moderate, light orange-brown; buds pointed, ovoid, light reddish brown.
Bark: Gray and smooth when young, later becoming more reddish brown with scaly ridges.
Form: A small, slow growing tree up to 30 feet tall, branches low and develops a spreading, but dense crown.
Looks like: pinyon pine - singleleaf pinyon
Additional Range Information: Pinus quadrifolia is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
External Links: USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information