grand fir Pinaceae Abies
grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl. symbol: ABGR
Leaf: Flattened needles, about 3/4 to 2 inches long, dark yellow-green above with 2 white bands below; apex rounded or notched; spirally arranged but flattened into 2 ranks especially lower in the crown; vary in length with lengths alternating on the twig; grow parallel to one another but perpendicular to the twig.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male cones yellowish and borne beneath the leaves; female cones yellowish-green to green and borne upright near the top of the crown.
Fruit: Cones are 2 to 4 inches long, barrel-shaped, and borne upright on the twig; cone scales are deciduous, falling from the cone as seeds ripen; green to purplish green when mature.
Twig: Stiff, olive to reddish brown, and covered with round, flat leaf scars when needles fall. Buds are large, rounded, and covered with pitch; terminal buds usually occur in clusters of three or more.
Bark: When young grayish green and covered with resin blisters; with age becoming 2 to 3 inches thick, grayish brown and mottled, often furrowed with flattened ridges; inner bark is purple-red.
Form: A large evergreen, commonly 150 to 200 feet tall and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. It develops a long narrow crown of dense foliage, often rounded or flat-topped at maturity.
Looks like: Pacific silver fir - subalpine fir - California red fir - noble fir
Additional Range Information: Abies grandis is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information