Virginia Tech Dendrology

Carolina hemlock Pinaceae Tsuga caroliniana Engelm. Listen to the Latin play symbol: TSCA2
Leaf: Evergreen, flattened, single needles, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, not tapering towards the round tip; dark green above, paler with two bluish-white stomatal lines beneath; needles radiate out from twig in all directions and are attached with a small petiole.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male cones small and yellowish; females small and greenish; both males and females occur near branch tips.
Fruit: Woody light brown cone, 1 to 1 1/2 inches, when dry scales stick out at nearly right angles, scales longer than they are wide.
Twig: Slender, yellowish brown, turning gray-brown, buds small and round.
Bark: Dark, reddish brown, develops fissures with scaly ridges, inner bark often showing maroon patches.
Form: Pyramidal crown with hanging branches, almost lacy looking. Reaches a height of 40 to 60 feet, 1 to 1 1/2 feet in diameter.
Looks like: eastern hemlock - western hemlock - mountain hemlock - English yew
leaf flower fruit twig bark form1 map
Additional Range Information: Tsuga caroliniana is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. See states reporting Carolina hemlock.
External Links: USDAFS Additional Silvics - USDA Plants Database
All material © 2018 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654