eastern hemlock Pinaceae Tsuga
canadensis (L.) Carrière
Leaf: Evergreen, flat, single needles, 1/2 inch long, tapering to a dull point, primarily two-ranked, shiny dark green above, 2 lines of white stomata below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males yellow, small, round; females light green at branch tips.
Fruit: Ovoid light brown cone, 3/4 inch long with rounded, entire scales, maturing in early fall.
Twig: Slender, gray-brown in color; buds are very small.
Bark: Initially gray-brown and smooth then turning scaly; older trees are red-brown with wide ridges and furrows; when cut or broken, purple streaks are obvious.
Form: A medium sized tree with a dense, conical crown, fine branches and a drooping terminal shoot reaching up to 80 feet tall, typically a poor natural pruner.
Looks like: Carolina hemlock - western hemlock - mountain hemlock - English yew
Additional Range Information: Tsuga canadensis is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. See states reporting eastern hemlock.
More Information: Wood - Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - Horticulture Information - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2018 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range maps courtesy USGS from USDA "Atlas of United States Trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr., Vol. 1 (1971) 3 (1976) 4 (1977) 5 (1978)