Leaf: Evergreen needles, 4 to 6 inches long, flexible with two thick, dark green needles per fascicle.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, yellow, in large clusters along twigs; females oval, yellow to purple.
Fruit: Cones are ovoid, 2 to 3 inches long, yellow-brown; umbo is armed with a very short, minute prickle, maturing in the fall.
Twig: Quite stout, brown to gray in color with a large white, ovoid terminal bud.
Bark: Brown to gray, developing gray-brown ridges and dark brown furrows.
Form: A medium sized tree reaching up to 100 feet tall with a very dense crown (needles retained up to 4 years) that eventually develops a flat top.
Looks like: Afghan pine - red pine - Japanese black pine - Japanese red pine
Additional Range Information: Pinus nigra is planted in the USDA hardiness zones shown above and may seed into the landscape. Download the full-size PDF map.
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - Horticulture Information
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information