Eastern hemlock is a long-lived conifer of cool eastern climates. It offers valuable shade and shelter to wildlife, and it often planted ornamentally due to its versatility and beauty. The future of eastern hemlock in question due to the spread of the hemlock woolly adlegid, an accidentally introduced sap-feeding insect.
Superior shade tolerance allows for regeneration by the shelterwood and group selection methods. Eastern hemlock responds well to release from competition from above and below.
Eastern hemlock will grow on many different soils, from moist to well drained. It is very shade tolerant and grows best with some shade.
A medium sized tree with a dense, conical crown, fine branches and a drooping terminal shoot reaching up to 80 feet tall, typically a poor natural pruner.
Eastern hemlock is used for light framing, roofing, sheathing, subflooring, boxes, crates, and pulpwood.
Eastern hemlock provides shade to aquatic ecosystems and shelter to wildlife, especially deer, during the winter. Large hollow trees are commonly used as dens by black bears.
Attracts voles, squirrels, snowshoe hares, deer, ruffed grouse, turkey, warblers
Insects and Diseases
Hemlocks were once used for structural timbers, as the wood is known for its nail-holding ability. Hemlock bark was once harvested for tannins. Hemlock woolly adelgid, which appears as small cottony tufts, is causing considerable damage in hemlock's range. Hemlocks can live in deep shade supression for as long as 400 years - and the oldest known specimens are approaching 600 years old.
Tsuga: Japanese name / canadensis: of Canada
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