buckthorn bumelia Sapotaceae Sideroxylon
Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen to deciduous farther north, obovate, ovate, or nearly lanceolate, entire, wedge-shaped at both tips, with a milky sap when broken, to 6 inches, shiny dark green above, paler and may be somewhat pubescent below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; white, and round-clustered, tiny individual flowers with 5 petals, early to midsummer.
Fruit: Egg-shaped and shiny, red ripening to nearly black fleshy fruits, 1/2 inch long, ripening in the fall.
Twig: Slender, spur shoots present, buds dome-shaped to conical and yellow-green, leaf scars circular, with a milky sap when broken. Twigs often armed with stout, unbranched 1 inch thorns at each leaf scar.
Bark: Initially smooth, becoming broken and then scaly, older trees scaly and shedding to reveal red inner bark.
Form: Shrub or small tree to 30 feet.
Looks like: gum bumelia - Osage-orange - common buckthorn - blackgum