Leaf: Evergreen needles, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch), slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color, fascicle sheath is persistent.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.
Fruit: Egg-shaped cone, 2 inches long, somewhat persistent; red to brown in color, umbo is armed with a small prickle, maturing in fall; scales stay relatively flexible.
Twig: Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.
Bark: Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing flat, scaly plates; very small (pencil point) resin pockets or "Volcanoes" may be apparent.
Form: A medium to large tree with a straight, well pruned trunk, able to reach over 100 feet tall; typically has a small, open, pyramidal crown.
Looks like: pitch pine - loblolly pine - Virginia pine - Table Mountain pine
Additional Range Information: Pinus echinata is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Wood - Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information