red spruce Pinaceae Picea rubens
Leaf:Evergreen needles, 1/2 to 5/8 inch long, sharply pointed and four-sided, tending to curve upwards, shiny yellow-green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower:Species is monoecious; males cylindrical reddish but turning yellow-brown; females purplish green.
Fruit:Chestnut brown ovoid cone, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, cone scale margins entire; seed disseminated in the fall and cones tend to drop their first winter.
Twig:Orangish brown, finely hairy (may need a hand lens); as with all spruces, needleless twigs covered by short sterigmata (short pegs); buds orange-brown, small with loose scales.
Bark:Grayish brown on surface, more reddish brown beneath with irregular, fine flaky patches.
Form:Upright and straight, with a narrow crown; reaching a height of 60 to 80 feet and a diameter of 1 to 2 feet.