Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, leathery, 2 to 5 inches long, oblong or elliptical in shape with an entire or spiny and revolute margin. The upper surface is lustrous, the lower is pale and pubescent. Generally, not bristle-tipped.
Flower: Species is monecious; male flowers borne on catkins, pistillate flowers borne on spikes, appearing in spring.
Fruit: Acorns in clusters of 3 to 5, dark nut, 3/4 inch long and covered 1/3 by the cap; cap is bowl-shaped, turbinate, and warty; maturing in early fall of the first year.
Twig: Slender, gray and pubescent, with small, blunt, multiple terminal buds.
Bark: Rapidly developing red-brown furrows with small surface scales; later becoming black and very blocky.
Form: A medium sized tree that can grow to massive proportions. Open-grown trees develop a huge rounded crown. The largest crowns may be 150 feet across.
Looks like: Texas live oak - running oak - water oak - American holly
Additional Range Information: Quercus virginiana is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
More Information: Landowner Factsheet
External Links: USDAFS Silvics of North America - USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database - Horticulture Information - USDAFS Forest Products Lab
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information