Leaf: Evergreen needles in fascicles of 2, curved but not twisted around each other, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long, stiff, medium to dark green, persist for many years.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, yellowish, in clusters; females yellow-green to purple.
Fruit: Small cones, borne singly or in small cluster, 1 to 2 inches long, grayish brown at maturity.
Twig: Moderate, typically short growth, very dense foliage, gray-brown buds and stem.
Bark: Brownish gray, on older stems splits and irregular plates develop, raised bumps on smaller stems.
Form: Most planted cultivars are small bushy, round shrubs, 15 to 20 feet in height. It can get much larger (50 feet).
Additional Range Information: Pinus mugo is planted in the USDA hardiness zones shown above and is not known to widely escape cultivaton. Download the full-size PDF map.
External Links: USDA Plants Database - Horticulture Information
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information