torreyana Parry ex Carrière
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 8 to 13 inches long, 5 per fascicle, tufted near the ends of branches; stout, stiff, and dark green, with many stomatal bands.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male cones are yellow and borne in heads; female cones are reddish and stalked.
Fruit: Large woody cones (4 to 6 inches) with thick scales ending in a thick, straight spine; almost round when open. Take 3 years to mature, and remain on the tree for several years after opening. Seeds are large and edible with a short, detachable wing.
Twig: Very stout, smooth, green becoming black with age.
Bark: Dark gray to black with deep furrows and flat, scaly ridges.
Form: Medium sized (30 to 50 feet tall and 1 to 2 feet in diameter) evergreen conifer with open, spreading crown. May be shrubby on sites exposed to high winds and salt spray.
Looks like: Coulter pine - gray pine - sugar pine - western white pine
Additional Range Information: Pinus torreyana is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting. Download the full-size PDF map.
External Links: USDAFS FEIS Silvics - USDA Plants Database
All material © 2019 Virginia Tech Dept. of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen, Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson; Silvics reprinted from Ag Handbook 654; range map source information