|Leaf: Opposite, simple, persistent, arranged in clusters, small (1/4 to 3/4 inch long), narrow, grayish-green and generally smooth, margins entire or occasionally with 1 or 2 teeth near the apex, petiole very short.
Flower: Perfect, complete small white or yellow flowers borne in small, loose clusters.
Fruit: Small, 3-lobed, rounded capsule up to 1/4 inch in diameter, each lobe has a horn near its apex, occur in clusters.
Twig: Lateral branchlets are short, rigid, and thorn-like, typically grow at right angles to main stem, opposite, reddish brown to gray.
Bark: Gray and smooth when young, becoming gray-brown with age.
Form: Most commonly an erect, evergreen shrub commonly 3 to 8 feet tall, but can be prostrate, especially at higher elevations, spiny.
Looks like: whitethorn ceanothus
- desert ceanothus
- redstem ceanothus