Shortleaf pine Pinaceae Pinus echinata

Leaf: Evergreen, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch) slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color. The fascicle sheath is persistent.

Flower: Monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.

Fruit: Compact, 2 inches long, ovoid, somewhat persistent. Cones are red to brown in color. The umbo is armed with a small prickle. Maturing October to November.

Twig: Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.

Bark: Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing plates with scaly surfaces. "Volcanoes" or small surface pockets of pitch may be apparent.

Form: A medium to large tree with a small, open, pyramidal crown.

Range and Silvics