Leaf: Acicular; 3 per fascicle, 4 to 6 inches long; slender; shiny green; persist 3 years.
Flower: Monoecious; male cones in yellow spikes; female cones dark purple.
Fruit: Egg-shaped, 3 to 6 inches long, asymmetrical (especially at the base), shiny brown, often clustered in dense whorls, serotinous (remain closed on the tree for many years); cone scales thick and rounded, tipped with a small prickle.
Twig: Slender and dark orange.
Bark: Mature bark is dark reddish-brown; thick with deep ridges and furrows.
Form: Straight trunk with irregular, open crown, 50 to 100 feet tall and 1 to 3 feet in diameter. Cone clusters are often conspicuous on branches and trunk.