American elderberry Caprifoliaceae Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis

Leaf: Opposite, pinnately compound, 6 to 11 inches long, with 5 to 11 elliptical, serrate leaflets, acuminate tips, bottom leaflets are often 3-lobed, dark green above and much paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; small, white, borne in dense, flat-topped clusters, up to 8 inches across, appearing in summer.
Fruit: Small, berrylike drupe, purple-black, and very juicy, up to 1/4 inch in diameter, borne in flat-topped clusters, maturing in late summer.
Twig: Stout, silvery- to yellow-gray with obvious, warty lenticles, large white pith; buds are very small, red-brown and pointed, terminal buds are generally lacking.
Bark: Smooth and brown with obvious warts, becoming shallowly furrowed and rough with age.
Form: A large shrub or small tree often with multiple stems that are spreading or arching reaching up to 12 feet tall. The trunk is usually short.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - mapleleaf viburnum

mapleleaf viburnum Caprifoliaceae Viburnum acerifolium

Leaf: Opposite, simple, suborbicular in shape, 3 to 4 inches long, 3-lobed, coarsely dentate, palmately veined with veins sunken on upper surface giving the leaf a slightly wrinkled look, pubescent below and on the petiole, green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; very small, white, appearing in flat topped clusters 1 1/2 to 3 inches across appearing in early summer.
Fruit: Drupes, 1/4 inch in diameter, rounded, red turning purple to black when ripe, occur in flat topped clusters; maturing in fall.
Twig: Slender, velvety-gray; buds ovoid, stalked with 4 dark purple scales.
Bark: Smooth, grayish brown.
Form: An upright suckering shrub that often grows in dense clumps and reaches up to 5 feet tall.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - Virginia creeper

Virginia creeper Vitaceae Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound, 4 to 8 inches across, with five elliptical leaflets per leaf, with coarsely crenate to serrate margins, shiny green above and paler below.
Flower: Small, not showy, green and borne in clusters on long stems, appear in summer.
Fruit: A blue-black berry, 1/4 inch in diameter, borne in long-stemmed clusters, maturing in late summer.
Twig: New stems are slender, light brown in color, with numerous reddish lenticels, tendrils are apparent opposite the buds, ending in adhesive pads; buds are broadly conical with orange-brown scales; leaf scars are nearly round and concave.
Bark: Gray-brown, becoming coarsely hairy due to aerial roots and tendrils. When rapidly growing, the aerial roots are bright, orange-brown.
Form: A climbing vine that may provide ground cover or ascend to fifty feet. Stems may get several inches in diameter.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - common greenbrier

common greenbrier Smilacaceae (Liliaceae) Smilax rotundifolia

Leaf: Alternate, simple, rounded to cordate, 2 to 5 inches long, parallel veined, entire margins, shiny green above, paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; small light yellow-green, borne in small round clusters in late spring.
Fruit: Dark blue to black berries, borne in clusters, often covered with a powdery, waxy bloom; maturing in late summer and persist over winter.
Twig: Stout, green, usually sharply 4-angled with many scattered, stiff prickles, climbs with tendrils; very tough and stiff but new spring sprouts are tender and edible.
Bark: Remaining green for a long period of time, turning brown on old stems.
Form: Most often a climbing vine, but may also form a small, tangled bush.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - partridgeberry

partridgeberry Rubiaceae Mitchella repens

Leaf: Opposite, evergreen, oval to heart-shaped leaf, 1/2 inch across, parallel veined, dark green above with a paler yellow-green midrib, pale yellow below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; tubular, 1/2 inch long, 4 white to faint pink fuzzy petals, appearing in mid-summer.
Fruit: Bright red berry, oval, 1/4 to 3/8 inches across, edible and persist through the winter.
Twig: Very delicate and barely woody, light green to brown in color.
Form: A creeping, delicate vine, does not climb and is often covered by fallen leaves.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - teaberry

teaberry Ericaceae Gaultheria procumbens

Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, oval to elliptical, 1 to 2 inches long, minutely serrated, thickened with a wintergreen odor when crushed, leaves appear whorled since they cluster at tips of plant; dark shiny green above, much paler below often with black dots.
Flower: Species is monoecious; small (1/4 inch), white, urn-shaped, hanging from short stems from leaf axils, appearing in mid to late summer.
Fruit: Red, round, 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter, hanging beneath the leaves, mild wintergreen taste, ripen in late summer and persist into winter.
Twig: Slender, green turning brown with age.
Bark: Light brown.
Form: Low plant with a height of only 3 to 5 inches; stems shoot out of the ground and end in a tight cluster of leaves.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - autumn-olive

autumn-olive Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata

Leaf: Alternate, simple, 1 to 3 inches long, 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide, lanceolate in shape with an entire margin. Leaves are green and distinctly scaly above, silvery and scaly below.
Flower: Bell-shaped, 1/2 inch long, very fragrant, lacking petals, yellow-white, appearing in spring.
Fruit: Berry-like achene, red covered with silver scales, 1/4 to 1/3 inch long, sweet and juicy, matures in late summer.
Twig: Young branches are silvery and scaly, and may bear thorns, later developing a light brown color; buds are small, silvery-brown and rounded, covered with 4 scales.
Bark: Smooth and gray when young, becoming split and furrowed later.
Form: A shrub or very small tree to 15 feet, rounded in outline.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - trailing arbutus

trailing arbutus Ericaceae Epigaea repens

Leaf: Alternate, evergreen, ovate to nearly oval, hairy margins, 2 to 3 inches long, heart-shaped base and somewhat thickened, shiny dark green above, a bit lighter and hairy beneath.
Flower: Perfect, white, pink to nearly red, 5 petals, up to 1/2 inch across, groups of 3 to 5, very fragrant, appearing in early to mid-spring.
Fruit: Berry-like, round capsule, 1/2 inch across, pale yellow-orange, ripens in late summer.
Twig: Basically not present, nearly prostrate stems are reddish brown, hairy and slightly shreddy; buds with loose green scales.
Form: Low growing, creeping woody herb, large leaves are mostly all that is visible.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map