hazel alder Betulaceae Alnus serrulata

Leaf: Alternate, simple, obovate to elliptical, 2 to 4 inches long, pinnately-veined, finely serrated wavy margin, dark green above, paler and finely hairy beneath.
Flower: Species is monoecious; both males and females preformed; males green brown catkins, 1 to 1 1/2 inches; female 1/2 inch long, reddish, opening in early spring.
Fruit: Woody, cone like catkin, 1/2 inch long, dark brown with each scale enclosing a tiny, winged seed. Fruit ripens in fall and is very persistant.
Twig: Reddish brown with gray fuzz, 3-angled pith; buds are stalked, plump, covered in 2 to 3 red-purple scales, resemble a match head.
Bark: Thin, gray to brown and smooth, trunk fluted.
Form: A multi-stemmed small tree or large shrub with several twisted stems reaching up to 15 feet tall.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - silky dogwood

silky dogwood Cornaceae Cornus amomum

Leaf: Opposite, simple, oval, 2 to 4 inches long, arcuately veined, margin entire, green above and maybe silky grayish when young, paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; small, white, in flat-topped clusters, 2 inches in diameter that appear in late spring and early summer.
Fruit: Berry-like drupes developing in flat-topped clusters, 1/4 inch in diameter, bluish with white blotches, maturing in late summer.
Twig: Red-purple (may be green-tinged), bearing silky gray hairs with a salmon colored pith, buds are narrow, pointed, hairy, sessile, and close to the stem.
Bark: At first red-purple (but may be green tinged); later turns brown and shallowly fissured.
Form: A small to medium sized, multi-stemmed, suckering shrub up to 10 feet tall. Branches may bend down and root in wet soil.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - mountain laurel

mountain laurel Ericaceae Kalmia latifolia

Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, elliptical, 2 to 5 inches long, entire margin, pointed tip, mid-vein raised on upper surfaces, shiny/waxy green above, yellow green below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; very showy clusters (3 to 6 inches across), white to rose colored with purple markings, each flower 1 inch across, with the petals forming a distinct firm bowl around the pistil and stamens, appear in late spring and early summer.
Fruit: A round, brown dehiscent capsule, 1/4 inch long, splitting into 5 valves when dry, occur in open clusters; releasing very small seeds when mature in the fall.
Twig: Generally forked and twisted, green or red when young, later brownish red, leaves cluster at branch tips.
Bark: Thin, dark brown to red in color, shredding and splitting on old stems.
Form: A small tree or shrub with many twisted stems reaching up to 10 feet tall in mountains (occasionally 25 feet on Piedmont of southeastern U.S.)
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - sourwood

sourwood Ericaceae Oxydendrum arboreum

Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical to lanceolate, 4 to 7 inches long, very finely serrate to ciliate, very slight pubescence on the mid-vein below, green above and paler below. A sour taste is obvious when the leaf is chewed
Flower: Species is monoecious; white, 1/4 inch long, urn-shaped, borne on drooping panicles, reminiscent of lily-of-the-valley flowers, appear in mid-summer.
Fruit: Dehiscent, 5-valved capsules borne on panicles. Capsules are dry when mature in fall and release the very tiny, 2-winged seeds.
Twig: Olive green, changing to red, with buds that are small, round and oppressed (almost absent); leaf scars are elevated with one bundle scar.
Bark: Grayish brown, very thick with deep furrows and scaly ridges; often the ridges are broken into recognizable rectangles.
Form: A small tree maybe up to 60 feet tall, usually with poor form with crooked branches and an irregular crown.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - bear oak

bear oak Fagaceae Quercus ilicifolia

Leaf: Alternate, simple, obovate, 2 to 5 inches long (somewhat bell-shaped), 5 to 9 bristle tipped lobes with shallow sinuses, dark green above, much lighter and thickly pubescent below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers borne on 2 to 4 inch long pale reddish green catkins; reddish females borne on very short axillary spikes, appears with the leaves in mid-spring.
Fruit: Dark brown striated acorn, 1/3 to 1/2 inch long; saucer-shaped cap covers 1/3 of the nut, cap scales are tightly appressed, matures in the fall after two growing seasons.
Twig: Quite slender, with obvious tan pubescence; relatively small, reddish brown terminal buds are clustered, broadly conical, lateral buds are typically as large as the terminal bud.
Bark: Smooth, gray-brown with a few raised lenticels.
Form: A thicket-forming straggling shrub or small tree reaching up to 25 feet tall.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - lowbush blueberry

lowbush blueberry Ericaceae Vaccinium pallidum

Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical and borne on a short petiole, 1 to 2 inches long, very finely serrated or ciliated margins (nearly entire), dull green above, pale almost white beneath.
Flower: Species is monoecious; showy but small, white and bell-shaped, occur in tight, hanging clusters in mid-spring.
Fruit: Small, blue-black berry usually with white bloom, containing many small seeds. Fruits are sweet and edible when mature in mid summer.
Twig: Slender, zigzag, green (some red), very finely gray fuzzy when new, with a continuous small pith; leaf scars are small with one bundle trace; buds are red and very small, and the end bud is lacking.
Bark: Smooth, green to green-red, usually remains green to the ground.
Form: Stoloniferous small shrub reaching up to two to three feet tall.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - Table Mountain pine

Table Mountain pine Pinaceae Pinus pungens

Leaf: Evergreen needles, 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 inches long, with 2 twisted, yellow-green, stout needles per fascicle.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males long, cylindrical, purple to yellow, clustered near branch tips; females green to light purple, often in clusters.
Fruit: Cones are ovoid, three inches long and very stout, dark red-brown and the umbo is armed with a large, thick, curved spine, sessile and persistent, often in whorls; maturing in the fall.
Twig: Moderately stout and tough, orange-brown in color; buds are narrowly ovoid, light brown and often resinous.
Bark: Scaly, dark red-brown or gray in color, eventually developing irregular plates with very scaly surfaces.
Form: A small to medium sized tree up to 65 feet tall with an irregular crown that supports several large, heavy branches, often with numerous, persistent, closed cones.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - black raspberry

black raspberry Rosaceae Rubus occidentalis

Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound, 3 to 5 inches long and wide, 3 to 5 leaflets with serrated margins, small prickles on petiole, light green above, and much paler (nearly white) below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; not showy, 5 small greenish white petals, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Juicy, black, multiple of drupes, 1/2 inch across, ripen in mid summer. When picked they separate from the fleshy core forming a hollow shell.
Twig: Arching "canes" which generally live 2 years. Purplish-red with an abundance of white glaucous bloom and hooked prickles. Canes readily root at the tips when they contact the ground.
Bark: Similar to canes but darker and not glaucous.
Form: Arching canes may reach 3 to 5 feet high, often forming dense tangled thickets.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - flame azalea

flame azalea Ericaceae Rhododendron calendulaceum

Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, ovate to elliptical, deciduous, 1 to 3 inches long, dull green above, short hairs below.
Flower: Beautiful, bright orange to almost red, appearing with or just before leaves, appearing late spring to early summer.
Fruit: An oblong woody capsule, 1/3 to 1/2 inch long, splits when mature in late summer.
Twig: Slender, reddish brown, very hairy, single bundle scar, buds occur in clusters at ends of twigs; flower buds are much larger (1/2 long).
Bark: Gray-brown and thin, may become finely shreddy.
Form: Tall shrub that may reach 15 feet tall. Twigs often appear in whorls from central stem.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map