Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate, 4 to 6 inches long, pinnately-veined, acute tip, rounded base, doubly serrate margins, somewhat soft or fuzzy, dark green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males are preformed catkins occuring near ends of twig, 1 inch long, reddish green; females are upright 5/8 inches long, reddish green; appear or elongate (males) in the spring.
Fruit: Cone like, 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches long, rather plump, upright, with many hairy scales containing 2-winged nutlets, matures in fall and disperse over winter.
Twig: Slender, green-brown and hairy when young, light-brown and smooth later; spur shoots present on older trees; buds are ovoid, sharply pointed, reddish brown with ciliate scale margins. Twigs have a wintergreen smell when broken.
Bark: On younger stems shiny bronze (sometimes gray), peeling horizontally in thin, curly, papery strips; older trees develop red-brown scaly plates.
Form: A medium size tree to 75 feet with an irregular crown.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, oblong to lanceolate, 3 to 6 inches long, pinnately veined, coarsely toothed margin, green above and much lighter and fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers are small and pale yellow, borne on semi-upright catkins 4 to 6 inches long; female flowers are borne on the base of some of the same catkins, 1/8 inch long, appear in late spring.
Fruit: Small, bur covered with sharp spines, 3/4 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter, often the burs occur in clusters on stems; each bur contains a single, shiny chestnut brown, ovoid nut. Nuts are edible and quite sweet when mature in the fall.
Twig: Slender to moderate, reddish brown, often with gray fuzz; buds are also gray-brown and fuzzy, covered with 2 to 3 visible bud scales.
Bark: Light, reddish brown in color, shallowly furrowed with scaly plates on large stems.
Form: A large shrub or small tree up to 25 feet tall that can form dense thickets when growing in bright sunshine.
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 6 to 9 inches long, with (usually) three yellow-green needles per fascicle.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males long cylindrical, red to yellow, in clusters at branch tips; females yellow to purple.
Fruit: Ovoid to cylindrical, 3 to 6 inch red-brown cones; umbo is armed with a short spine, maturing in early fall.
Twig: Orange-brown in color, fine to moderately stout; buds are narrowly ovoid, light reddish brown.
Bark: Initially red- to gray-brown and scaly; older trees are ridged and furrowed, with somewhat rounded scaly plates; very old trees have red-brown, flat scaly plates.
Form: A medium to large tree can reach well over 100 feet tall, self-prunes well and develops a fairly straight trunk and an oval, somewhat open crown.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches, pinnately veined, finely serrated, sometimes borne on spur shoots, green above and paler, white pubescent below and on the petiole.
Flower: Perfect, showy, may be white to red in color, with 5 petals for each flower; appear in the spring, usually in umbels.
Fruit: Pomes of various sizes and color (cultivar dependent) ranging from yellow to red when ripe in the fall.
Twig: Moderate in thickness, brown to gray, rapid growth usually gray hairy, generally many spur shoots; buds plump ovate, gray hairy.
Bark: Variable, generally smooth when young, later thin and scaly.
Form: Generally poor, with twisted trunks and low branching; spur shoots are prominent. When unpruned, numerous sucker shoots form along trunk and in crown.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, orbicular to ovate, 3 to 4 inches long, pinnately veined, large blunt teeth, petiole flattened vetically, green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is dioecious; males and females occur on hanging, 2 to 3 inch long fuzzy catkins, appearing before the leaves in early spring.
Fruit: Cottony seeds, 1/4 inch long, borne in small dehiscent capsules that occur along catkins, maturing late spring to early summer.
Twig: Medium-textured, gray-brown in color; buds are ovate, pointed, red-brown to gray with some pubescence; leaf scars raised and heart-shaped. When chewed, the twig has a bitter, aspirin taste.
Bark: Thin, gray, olive-green to milky green and smooth on young stems; later gray-brown, ridged with diamond shaped lenticels and splits forming.
Form: A medium sized tree with an irregular, thin crown and a straight bole.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, oblong, 6 to 10 inches long, with 5 lobes, the two middle lobes are distinctly square, resulting in an overall cruciform appearance, thickened texture; green above with scattered stellate pubescence, pubescent and paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in naked, hanging catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are reddish and appear as single, short spikes from leaf axils, appearing with the leaves.
Fruit: Acorns are 1/2 to 2/3 inches long and ovoid; cap is bowl-shaped and warty/scaly, covering 1/3 to 1/2 of the nut; Individual scales are more apparent than white oak; maturing in one year and ripening in the fall.
Twig: Gray or tawny-tomentose and dotted with numerous lenticels; multiple terminal buds are short, blunt, orange-brown, somewhat pubescent, short, thread-like stipules may be present.
Bark: Ashy gray and initially quite scaly, later becoming more blocky and ridged, very similar to white oak.
Form: A small to Medium sized tree up to 65 feet tall with a crown that has gnarled and twisted branches.
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, up to 12 inches long, 7 to 15 leaflets per leaf; leaflets are lance-shaped, with entire margins, rachis has prominent wings between the leaflets, shiny, dark green above, paler and a bit fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; greenish-yellow and small, borne on 3 to 5 inch wide, terminal pyramid-shaped panicles in mid to late summer.
Fruit: A dark red, round drupe borne on terminal cluster, 1/8 inch long, covered with short, sticky, red hairs; matures in fall but present through winter.
Twig: Medium-textured, speckled with lenticels, and covered with fine, velvety, reddish brown hair; buds are small, rounded and hairy, leaf scars horseshoe-shaped.
Bark: Light brown or gray, smooth with numerous lenticels when young, later with large, thin scales.
Form: A small tree or large shrub up to 25 feet with a short trunk and spreading branches.
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 12 to 18 inches long, 11 to 31 lanceolate leaflets per leaf, each 2 to 4 inches long with a serrated margin, dark green above, paler and finely hairy below.
Flower: Species is dioecious; small, with pale yellow petals, borne in a dense upright cluster up to 8 inches long, appearing in mid to late summer.
Fruit: A small (1/8 inch) reddish, round, finely hairy drupe borne in dense upright cluster. The panicles typically droop when mature in the fall and persist into winter.
Twig: Stout, lacking hairs and often with a bluish glaucous bloom; buds are small, rounded and covered with light brown hairs, nearly encircled by leaf scar.
Bark: Brown-gray and smooth, with numerous lenticels, developing scaly ridges with age.
Form: A shrub or small tree up to 10 feet with a short or multi-stemmed trunk and wide spreading, open crown.
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 16 to 24 inches long, with 11 to 31 lanceolate leaflets with serrate margins each 2 to 5 inches long, rachis fuzzy; green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is usually dioecious; small, with yellow-green petals, borne on upright, dense terminal cluster up to 8 inches long, appearing in mid-summer.
Fruit: A round (1/8 inch diameter), red, fuzzy drupe; borne on upright dense clusters; mature in late summer, but persist through winter.
Twig: Stout, brown and very fuzzy (resembling deer antlers in velvet); buds are small, rounded and covered with soft, brown hairs, nearly encircled by leaf scar.
Bark: Remaining fuzzy for several years, turning gray-brown and smooth with numerous lenticels, much later becoming a bit scaly.
Form: A shrub or small tree to 25 feet, with a short, often poorly formed trunk and wide spreading very open crown. Branches repeatedly and widely fork.
Leaf: Evergreen, four-sided needles, stiff, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, light blue-green in color, somewhat blunt pointed tips, light blue-green to gray.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males red, turning yellow to light brown; females purple, upright, and in the upper crowns.
Fruit: Ovoid cones are the smallest of the spruces, 1 inch long, scale margins are rounded and finely erose; maturing in late summer with seeds disseminating in early fall.
Twig: Slender, brown and pubescent; needles are borne on woody pegs; buds are small, gray-brown with loose scales.
Bark: Thin, gray-brown or red-brown in color, broken into irregular, close scales.
Form: Small to medium sized trees up to 70 feet tall with a very narrow conical or spire-like crown and a poorly pruned trunk.
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 4 to 6 inches long, with two needles per fascicle that snap cleanly when bent, dark green.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males almost round, light red, in large clusters at branch tips; females a round, short cone, reddish brown.
Fruit: Cones are ovoid, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long, shiny chestnut brown, umbo is not armed, maturing in early summer.
Twig: Medium textured, orange-brown in color with narrow, ovoid orange-brown buds.
Bark: On young trees, red-brown or pink to gray, flaky; eventually becoming plated, the plates have scaly surfaces with a reddish tinge.
Form: A medium size tree reaching up to 90 feet tall, with oval crown and a clear bole. Foliage is tufted, resembling a fox tail.
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 1/2 to 5/8 inch long, sharply pointed and four-sided, tending to curve upwards, shiny yellow-green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical reddish but turning yellow-brown; females purplish green.
Fruit: Chestnut brown ovoid cone, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, cone scale margins entire; seed disseminated in the fall and cones tend to drop their first winter.
Twig: Orangish brown, finely hairy (may need a hand lens); as with all spruces, needleless twigs covered by short sterigmata (short pegs); buds orange-brown, small with loose scales.
Bark: Grayish brown on surface, more reddish brown beneath with irregular, fine flaky patches.
Form: Upright and straight, with a narrow crown; reaching a height of 60 to 80 feet and a diameter of 1 to 2 feet.
Leaf: Alternate, palmately compound, 3 to 5 inches long and wide, 3 to 7 leaflets (mostly 5), ovate to oval leaflets, serrated margins, prickles on petiole, dark green above and much paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; showy white flowers (one inch across) with 5 petals, larger and persisting longer than black raspberry.
Fruit: Juicy, black multiple of drupes, up to 1 inch long, ripens in late summer. When picked, the fruit does not separate from its core.
Twig: Stout, strongly angled canes with large hooked prickles, dull reddish brown, lacking glaucous bloom. Cane tips do not root.
Bark: Similar to twig but darkens with age.
Form: Sprawling, arching canes that form dense thickets, often well over head-high, particularly when supported.