tree-of-Heaven Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima

Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 1 to 3 feet long, with 11 to 41 leaflets, leaflets are 2 to 6 inches long, pointed at the tip with large, glandular teeth near the base, green above and below.
Flower: Species is dioecious; small yellow-green, in long (6 to 12 inches) clusters, males have a disagreeable odor, appearing in late spring to early summer.
Fruit: An oblong, twisted samara, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long with the seed in the center, hanging in long clusters, ripens in late summer and disperse through the winter.
Twig: Stout, yellow to red-brown, with fine velvety hairs when young, easily broken with a large reddish brown pith; buds are relatively small and half-spherical sitting above large, heart-shaped leaf scars; terminal bud is absent. Strong odor (some are reminded of peanut butter) when broken.
Bark: Thin, light brown to gray, resembles the skin of a cantaloupe when young, later turning darker gray and rough.
Form: A short to medium sized tree to 70 feet with heavy, open branches. Lower branches on larger trees tend to droop. Often grows in clumps.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - shortleaf pine

shortleaf pine Pinaceae Pinus echinata

Leaf: Evergreen needles, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch), slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color, fascicle sheath is persistent.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.
Fruit: Egg-shaped cone, 2 inches long, somewhat persistent; red to brown in color, umbo is armed with a small prickle, maturing in fall; scales stay relatively flexible.
Twig: Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.
Bark: Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing flat, scaly plates; very small (pencil point) resin pockets or "Volcanoes" may be apparent.
Form: A medium to large tree with a straight, well pruned trunk, able to reach over 100 feet tall; typically has a small, open, pyramidal crown.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - summer grape

summer grape Vitaceae Vitis aestivalis

Leaf: Alternate, simple, cordate, 4 to 6 inches long, toothed and often lobed, green above, red woolly hairs beneath.
Flower: Green, generally not showy, borne on panicles, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: An edible berry, 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter, occurring in clusters, usually dark blue or purple at maturity, often with a glaucous bloom, maturing in early fall.
Twig: Stems are mostly rounded, with rounded buds that have two bud scales; terminal bud is false; branching tendrils grow opposite the leaves, do not have adhesive tips and are generally absent every third node, woody partitions across pith at nodes.
Bark: Reddish brown, long splits develop with coarse peeling, narrow strips.
Form: A vine that climbs to 70 feet with its curly tendrils; it can smother tree canopies.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - yellow buckeye

yellow buckeye Hippocastanaceae Aesculus flava

Leaf: Opposite, palmately compound, 10 to 15 inches long, 5 oval leaflets, each 3 to 7 inches long, sharply serrate, petiole as long as leaflet; dark green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; pale yellow-orange, tubular, with stamens shorter than petals, occur in large showy upright clusters, 4 to 8 inches in length, appear in late spring.
Fruit: Smooth, thick, leathery husks enclosing 1 to 3 smooth chestnut-brown, shiny seeds with a large, lighter brown spot on one side; develop on a stout, terminal stalk and appear as small pear-shaped "potatoes".
Twig: Stout, with a large shield-shaped leaf scar, orangish lenticels; terminal buds are orangish brown, quite large (1/2 to 3/4 inch) with a sharp point; the lateral buds are much smaller.
Bark: Initially smooth, light grayish brown and often quite splotchy. Later develops large scaly patches.
Form: Typically quite straight, 50 to 80 feet tall with hanging branches; trunk diameter 1 to 2 feet.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - border privet

border privet Oleaceae Ligustrum obtusifolium

Leaf: Opposite, tardily deciduous to nearly evergreen, simple, oblong, 1 to 2 inches long, entire margins, slightly thickened, both tip and base rounded or blunt, dark green above and lighter below.
Flower: Short panicles of white flowers (less than 1 1/2 inches), often very dense, very fragrant, appearing late spring at ends of twigs; individual flowers with tubes longer than the 4 petal lobes.
Fruit: Shiny, blue-black berry with a white waxy bloom, smaller than 1/4 inch in diameter, ripens in fall and persisting.
Twig: Slender, grayish green, pubescent, small opposite buds.
Bark: Smooth, grayish brown, many light colored, short horizontal lenticels.
Form: Upright shrub to 12 feet with equal spread, usually with many stems, can be somewhat twiggy.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - multiflora rose

multiflora rose Rosaceae Rosa multiflora

Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound leaf, 3 to 5 inches long, 5 to 11 serrated leaflets, comb-like stipules along base of petiole, dark green above and paler below.
Flower: White, 5 wedge-shaped petals, 2 inches across, occurring in clusters, fragrant, appearing in early summer.
Fruit: Red to reddish brown, 1/4 inch, oblong, fleshy "hip", ripens in late summer and persist through the winter.
Twig: Green or greenish-red, usually with paired, curved prickles, long and arching stems; buds red, pointed.
Bark: Brown, finely shreddy at base.
Form: Sprawling arching stems which form a large round crown and dense thickets; individual stems often reaching high into the air when supported.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - Oriental bittersweet

Oriental bittersweet Celastraceae Celastrus orbiculatus

Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate to nearly round, 2 to 4 inches long, very often with a blunt tip, finely serrated, somewhat rounded teeth, green above and slightly paler below.
Flower: Inconspicuous, pale yellowish-green, appearing from leaf axils in late spring.
Fruit: Very attractive, capsules in clusters which when open expose a bright red seed surrounded by yellow scales, 1/3 inch across, appear from leaf axils; ripen in the fall and are visible throughout the winter.
Twig: Thin, light brown, with small pointy buds at nearly right angles to the stems; no tendrils or aerial roots present.
Bark: Silvery gray-brown, initially smooth, later corky with diamond-shaped patterns, much later becomes finely scaly.
Form: Climbing vine, with an open, spiraling pattern. Forms dense thickets along fences. Some stems may become several inches in diameter.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - Japanese honeysuckle

Japanese honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica

Leaf: Opposite, simple, ovate to oval, 1 to 2 inches long, entire margin, sometimes lobed, semi-evergreen, light green and somewhat pubescent.
Flower: Fragrant, 1/2 to 1 inch long, white or yellowish-white long petals, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Small (1/4 inch diameter), black berry, often in pairs, ripen in fall and persist into early winter.
Twig: Slender, initially pubescent, light brown in color developing scaly, thin bark, hollow pith; buds small.
Bark: Long, shreddy peeling strips, light red-brown to straw-colored.
Form: A scrambling, twisting vine with no tendrils or aerial roots, forms dense thickets in bushes and trees and sprawls along the ground.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - Amur honeysuckle

Amur honeysuckle Caprifoliaceae Lonicera maackii

Leaf: Opposite, simple, ovate, 2 to 3 inches long, entire margin, acuminate tip; green above, paler and slightly fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; white changing to yellow, 3/4 to 1 inch in length, 4 upper petal lobes fused, very fragrant, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Juicy red berry, 1/4 inch in diameter, appearing in late summer often in great abundance, persists into the winter.
Twig: Slender, glabrous, grayish brown, hollow pith but solid brown at the nodes; opposite, small pointed, light brown buds.
Bark: Develops long, deep fissures, somewhat scaly ridges, grayish brown.
Form: An erect shrub, multi-stemmed, branches often arching, up to 20 feet tall, 15 foot spread.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map