Leaf: Opposite, simple, ovate to oval, 1 to 2 inches long, entire margin, sometimes lobed, semi-evergreen, light green and somewhat pubescent.
Flower: Fragrant, 1/2 to 1 inch long, white or yellowish-white long petals, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Small (1/4 inch diameter), black berry, often in pairs, ripen in fall and persist into early winter.
Twig: Slender, initially pubescent, light brown in color developing scaly, thin bark, hollow pith; buds small.
Bark: Long, shreddy peeling strips, light red-brown to straw-colored.
Form: A scrambling, twisting vine with no tendrils or aerial roots, forms dense thickets in bushes and trees and sprawls along the ground.
Leaf: Opposite, simple, ovate, 2 to 3 inches long, entire margin, acuminate tip; green above, paler and slightly fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; white changing to yellow, 3/4 to 1 inch in length, 4 upper petal lobes fused, very fragrant, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Juicy red berry, 1/4 inch in diameter, appearing in late summer often in great abundance, persists into the winter.
Twig: Slender, glabrous, grayish brown, hollow pith but solid brown at the nodes; opposite, small pointed, light brown buds.
Bark: Develops long, deep fissures, somewhat scaly ridges, grayish brown.
Form: An erect shrub, multi-stemmed, branches often arching, up to 20 feet tall, 15 foot spread.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate to nearly round, 2 to 4 inches long, very often with a blunt tip, finely serrated, somewhat rounded teeth, green above and slightly paler below.
Flower: Inconspicuous, pale yellowish-green, appearing from leaf axils in late spring.
Fruit: Very attractive, capsules in clusters which when open expose a bright red seed surrounded by yellow scales, 1/3 inch across, appear from leaf axils; ripen in the fall and are visible throughout the winter.
Twig: Thin, light brown, with small pointy buds at nearly right angles to the stems; no tendrils or aerial roots present.
Bark: Silvery gray-brown, initially smooth, later corky with diamond-shaped patterns, much later becomes finely scaly.
Form: Climbing vine, with an open, spiraling pattern. Forms dense thickets along fences. Some stems may become several inches in diameter.
Leaf: Opposite, palmately compound, 10 to 15 inches long, 5 oval leaflets, each 3 to 7 inches long, sharply serrate, petiole as long as leaflet; dark green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; pale yellow-orange, tubular, with stamens shorter than petals, occur in large showy upright clusters, 4 to 8 inches in length, appear in late spring.
Fruit: Smooth, thick, leathery husks enclosing 1 to 3 smooth chestnut-brown, shiny seeds with a large, lighter brown spot on one side; develop on a stout, terminal stalk and appear as small pear-shaped "potatoes".
Twig: Stout, with a large shield-shaped leaf scar, orangish lenticels; terminal buds are orangish brown, quite large (1/2 to 3/4 inch) with a sharp point; the lateral buds are much smaller.
Bark: Initially smooth, light grayish brown and often quite splotchy. Later develops large scaly patches.
Form: Typically quite straight, 50 to 80 feet tall with hanging branches; trunk diameter 1 to 2 feet.
Leaf: Opposite, tardily deciduous to nearly evergreen, simple, oblong, 1 to 2 inches long, entire margins, slightly thickened, both tip and base rounded or blunt, dark green above and lighter below.
Flower: Short panicles of white flowers (less than 1 1/2 inches), often very dense, very fragrant, appearing late spring at ends of twigs; individual flowers with tubes longer than the 4 petal lobes.
Fruit: Shiny, blue-black berry with a white waxy bloom, smaller than 1/4 inch in diameter, ripens in fall and persisting.
Twig: Slender, grayish green, pubescent, small opposite buds.
Bark: Smooth, grayish brown, many light colored, short horizontal lenticels.
Form: Upright shrub to 12 feet with equal spread, usually with many stems, can be somewhat twiggy.
Leaf: Evergreen needles, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch), slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color, fascicle sheath is persistent.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.
Fruit: Egg-shaped cone, 2 inches long, somewhat persistent; red to brown in color, umbo is armed with a small prickle, maturing in fall; scales stay relatively flexible.
Twig: Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.
Bark: Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing flat, scaly plates; very small (pencil point) resin pockets or "Volcanoes" may be apparent.
Form: A medium to large tree with a straight, well pruned trunk, able to reach over 100 feet tall; typically has a small, open, pyramidal crown.
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound leaf, 3 to 5 inches long, 5 to 11 serrated leaflets, comb-like stipules along base of petiole, dark green above and paler below.
Flower: White, 5 wedge-shaped petals, 2 inches across, occurring in clusters, fragrant, appearing in early summer.
Fruit: Red to reddish brown, 1/4 inch, oblong, fleshy "hip", ripens in late summer and persist through the winter.
Twig: Green or greenish-red, usually with paired, curved prickles, long and arching stems; buds red, pointed.
Bark: Brown, finely shreddy at base.
Form: Sprawling arching stems which form a large round crown and dense thickets; individual stems often reaching high into the air when supported.
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 1 to 3 feet long, with 11 to 41 leaflets, leaflets are 2 to 6 inches long, pointed at the tip with large, glandular teeth near the base, green above and below.
Flower: Species is dioecious; small yellow-green, in long (6 to 12 inches) clusters, males have a disagreeable odor, appearing in late spring to early summer.
Fruit: An oblong, twisted samara, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long with the seed in the center, hanging in long clusters, ripens in late summer and disperse through the winter.
Twig: Stout, yellow to red-brown, with fine velvety hairs when young, easily broken with a large reddish brown pith; buds are relatively small and half-spherical sitting above large, heart-shaped leaf scars; terminal bud is absent. Strong odor (some are reminded of peanut butter) when broken.
Bark: Thin, light brown to gray, resembles the skin of a cantaloupe when young, later turning darker gray and rough.
Form: A short to medium sized tree to 70 feet with heavy, open branches. Lower branches on larger trees tend to droop. Often grows in clumps.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, cordate, 4 to 6 inches long, toothed and often lobed, green above, red woolly hairs beneath.
Flower: Green, generally not showy, borne on panicles, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: An edible berry, 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter, occurring in clusters, usually dark blue or purple at maturity, often with a glaucous bloom, maturing in early fall.
Twig: Stems are mostly rounded, with rounded buds that have two bud scales; terminal bud is false; branching tendrils grow opposite the leaves, do not have adhesive tips and are generally absent every third node, woody partitions across pith at nodes.
Bark: Reddish brown, long splits develop with coarse peeling, narrow strips.
Form: A vine that climbs to 70 feet with its curly tendrils; it can smother tree canopies.