Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate, with an acute tip and cordate base, singly or irregularly doubly, sharply serrate margins, 2 to 4 inches long, petiole is stout and pubescent, dark shiny green above, paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; preformed, green male catkins near the end of the twig, 3/4 to 1 inch long; females are upright, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, green tinged in red, appear or elongate (males) in mid-spring.
Fruit: Cone-like aggregate, brown, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, scales hairless or nearly so, containing very small 2-winged nutlets, ripen and break apart in late summer and fall.
Twig: Twigs are slender, reddish brown and lenticellate with a wintergreen smell when cut. On older trees, spur shoots are apparent. Terminal buds are absent, lateral buds two toned, green and brown.
Bark: Reddish brown to black on young trees, later gray to nearly black; eventually breaking up into large, thin, irregular, scaly plates.
Form: A medium sized tree with a single straight trunk reaching up to 60 feet tall.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, rhombic to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, conspicuously doubly serrate, with a wedge-shaped base, green above, paler and fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; preformed, reddish green, male catkins near the end of the twig, 2 to 3 inches long; female catkins upright, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, light green, appear or elongate (males) in mid-spring.
Fruit: Cone-like, aggregate, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, with many hairy scales, reddish brown, containing many tiny, 3-winged seeds, ripen and break apart in the fall.
Twig: Slender, orangish brown in color, smooth or slightly pubescent, with the terminal bud absent. Lateral buds may be slightly pubescent. No wintergreen odor when cut.
Bark: Smooth on young trees, salmon to rust colored; developing papery scales, exfoliating horizontally with several colors (creamy to orangish-brown) visible; later developing coarse scales.
Form: Medium size tree reaching up to 70 feet tall. The trunk generally divides low into several upright trunks.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, oblong, 5 to 8 inches long, coarsely serrated (but not as strongly toothed as American chestnut), shiny green above and paler and fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers are small and white, borne in long (4 to 5 inches) slender catkins, very fragrant; female flowers are borne on short aments, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, appearing in early summer.
Fruit: Large spiny (very sharp) bur 2 to 3 inches in diameter, each contains 2 to 3 edible nuts, 1 to 1 1/4 inches in diameter, shiny brown, typically flattened on 1 to 2 sides, ripen in late summer.
Twig: Moderately stout, tan to olive-brown with prominent lenticels, gray fuzzy; buds are gray-brown and pubescent, offset from leaf scar, covered with 2 to 3 overlapping scales.
Bark: Gray-brown to brown, furrowed, but without distinguishable patterns.
Form: A small tree with low branching and a rounded crown, reaching up to 40 feet tall.
Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound, 5 to 8 inches long, with 15 to 30 leaflets or bipinnately compound with 4 to 7 pairs of minor leaflets. Leaflets are 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, ovate to elliptical in shape, green to yellow-green.
Flower: Small, greenish yellow, displayed on 2 to 3 inch long narrow, hanging clusters, not showy, but very fragrant, appearing in late spring and early summer.
Fruit: A very distinctive, 6 to 8 inches long, flattened, red-brown, leathery pod that becomes dry and twisted; pod contains many oval, dark brown, shiny seeds, 1/3 inch long, maturing in late summer and early fall.
Twig: May be either stout or slender, prominantly zig-zag, red-brown to light brown in color, numerous lenticels and branched thorns. Lateral buds are very small and sunken.
Bark: Initially, gray-brown to bronze, and smooth with many horizontal lenticels, later breaking into long, narrow, curling plates. Often displaying clusters of large, branched thorns on trunk.
Form: A medium size tree with a typically short bole and an airy, spreading crown, reaches up to 80 feet tall.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 4 to 10 inches long, obovate or ovate in shape with 5 (mostly) to 7 bristle-tipped lobes; leaf shape is variable, with sun leaves having deep sinuses and shade leaves having very shallow sinuses, lustrous shiny green above, paler with a scruffy pubescence and axillary tufts below.
Flower: Species is monecious; males borne on slender yellow-green catkins; females are reddish green and borne on short spikes in leaf axils, appearing in spring with the leaves.
Fruit: Ovoid acorns, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, 1/3 to 1/2 enclosed in a bowl-shaped cap; cap scales are loosely appressed (particularly loose on edges of cap), light brown and fuzzy, matures in 2 years in late summer and fall.
Twig: Stout and red-brown to gray-green, usually glabrous but rapidly growing twigs may be hairy; buds are very large (1/4 to 1/2 inch long), buff-colored, fuzzy, pointed and distinctly angular.
Bark: At first gray and smooth, becoming thick and very rough, nearly black and deeply furrowed vertically with horizontal breaks. The inner bark is yellow-orange and very bitter tasting.
Form: A medium sized tree to 80 feet with an irregular crown and a tapering, somewhat limby bole.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 3 to 7 inches long, broadly lanceolate, unlobed with a single, terminal bristle-tip, somewhat leathery, shiny dark green above and paler and fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers borne on hanging slender catkins; females borne on short spikes, appearing with the leaves in spring.
Fruit: Acorns are 5/8 inch long, 1/3 to 1/2 covered by a thin, bowl-shaped cap with appressed light brown scales, matures in the fall after two years.
Twig: Slender, olive-green to orange-brown, quite lustrous with conical, pointed, red-brown buds.
Bark: Gray-brown, tight and quite hard, with broad, irregular ridges and very shallow furrows.
Form: A medium sized tree to 70 feet with pyramidal to oval and later rounded crown. Lateral lower branches often droop.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 6 to 12 inches long, roughly obovate in shape, with many lobes. The two middle sinuses nearly reach the midrib dividing leaf nearly in half. The lobes near the tip resemble a crown, green above and paler, fuzzy below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in long, drooping slender catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are green tinged in red and appear as single, short spikes, both appear shortly after the leaves.
Fruit: Acorns are quite large (1 1/2 inches long) and 1/2 enclosed in a warty cap that has a long-fringed margin, maturing in one growing season in late summer and fall.
Twig: Quite stout, yellow-brown, often with corky ridges; multiple terminal buds are small, round, and may be somewhat pubescent often surrounded by thread-like stipules; laterals are similar, but smaller.
Bark: Ashy gray to brown in color and quite scaly, but noticeably ridged vertically on large trees.
Form: A large tree that often reaches over 100 feet tall with a long clear bole. In the open it becomes a very wide, spreading tree.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 3 to 6 inches long, oval in outline with 5 to 9 bristle-tipped lobes and irregularly deep sinuses that extend nearly to the midrib. Major lobes form a U-shape. Bright green above and pale below with axillary tifts.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers borne on slender, drooping yellow-green catkins; females reddish green borne on short spikes in new leaf axils, appearing in the spring with the leaves.
Fruit: Acorns are 1/2 inch long, striated, round (but flattened at the cap); thin and saucer-like cap, covered with red-brown appressed scales; matures after 2 years, dispersed fall to early winter.
Twig: Slender, red-brown in color and quite lustrous with multiple terminal buds that are small, pointed, and chestnut brown.
Bark: Gray-brown and very tight and thin; remains smooth for many years, eventually develops thin ridges and furrows.
Form: A medium sized tree that is very pyramidal; lower branches are pendulous and middle branches grow at right angles; branches are studded with numerous branchlets that do not prune readily, resulting in a spiny appearance.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 2 to 5 inches long, linear or lanceolate in shape (willow-like) with an entire margin and a bristle tip.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males borne on slender yellow-green catkins; females borne on very short axilliary spikes, both appear very early with the leaves.
Fruit: Acorns are very small, 1/4 to 1/2 inch across, nearly round and yellow-green, turning tan when older, caps are thin, saucer-like and cover only 1/4 of acorn with thin, tomentose, appressed scales.
Twig: Slender, hairless, olive-brown in color when young; multiple terminal buds are very small, reddish brown and sharp-pointed.
Bark: On young stems, smooth, gray and tight; later becoming darker and forming irregular rough ridges and furrows.
Form: A medium sized tree up to 80 feet tall that forms a dense oblong crown when open grown; lower branches do not readily self-prune.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, 4 to 6 inches long, obovate to elliptical in shape with a crenate margin, shiny green above and paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in naked catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are reddish and appear as single spikes, appearing with the leaves in mid-spring.
Fruit: Acorns are 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, ovoid in shape and separate from the cap when mature; cap is thin, warty and shaped like a teacup, edges of cap are very thin; matures in one growing season, ripening in the fall.
Twig: Medium textured, lacking hair, orange-brown or grayish in color with chestnut brown multiple terminal buds that are pointed, narrowly conical and quite long.
Bark: Gray-brown to brown, very smooth when young; developing hard and wide flat-topped ridges which later become thicker and more sharply pointed ridges; somewhat resembling the back of an alligator or ridge tops.
Form: A medium sized tree to 80 feet tall that on better sites will develop a straight trunk and narrow crown; on drier ridge tops it is much smaller with a crooked stem.
Leaf: Evergreen, flat, single needles, 1/2 inch long, tapering to a dull point, primarily two-ranked, shiny dark green above, 2 lines of white stomata below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males yellow, small, round; females light green at branch tips.
Fruit: Ovoid light brown cone, 3/4 inch long with rounded, entire scales, maturing in early fall.
Twig: Slender, gray-brown in color; buds are very small.
Bark: Initially gray-brown and smooth then turning scaly; older trees are red-brown with wide ridges and furrows; when cut or broken, purple streaks are obvious.
Form: A medium sized tree with a dense, conical crown, fine branches and a drooping terminal shoot reaching up to 80 feet tall, typically a poor natural pruner.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, heart-shaped to ovate with a finely serrated margin, 2 to 3 inches in length, shiny green above, paler and dull below.
Flower: Large (2 to 4 inches across) clusters of showy white flowers each 1/2 to 3/4 inch across, appearing before or with the leaves; often so densely flowering that the entire tree appears white.
Fruit: Small (1/2 inch diameter), round, brown pome, very bitter.
Twig: Glossy brown to reddish brown, medium in texture, spur shoots present; terminal buds are large (1/4 to 1/2 inch long), ovate, and covered in light brown wooly hairs.
Bark: At first smooth with numerous lenticels, light brown to reddish brown, becoming grayish brown with shallow furrows and scaly ridges.
Form: Typically quite upright and conical with very narrow branch angles. May reach 60 feet in height.
Leaf: Alternate, bipinnately compound, very large (1 to 3 feet long), with numerous 1 1/2 to 2 inch ovate leaflets, entire margins, green above, slightly paler below.
Flower: Species is dioecious; males and females in long (3 to 4 inch) branched clusters, whitish, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Reddish brown, flat thickened pod, 3 to 8 inches long, 1 1/2 to 2 inches wide, contains 6 or more dark brown seeds imbeded in a sticky pulp, ripen in late summer.
Twig: Very stout, light brown with whitish patches, somewhat zigzag or wavy, large heart-shaped leaf scar, salmon colored pith; buds small and sunken.
Bark: Dark grayish brown, scaly, developing deep fissures with scaly ridges.
Form: Medium sized tree, with a wide spreading crown, 80 feet tall, 2 feet in diameter.