red maple Aceraceae Acer rubrum

Leaf: Opposite, simple, 3 to 5 palmate lobes with serrated margin, sinuses relatively shallow (but highly variable), 2 to 4 inches long; green above, whitened and sometimes glaucous or hairy beneath.
Flower: Attractive but small, occur in hanging clusters, usually bright red but occasionally yellow, appear in early spring, usually before leaves.
Fruit: Clusters of 1/2 to 3/4 inch long samaras with slighly divergent wings, on long slender stems. Light brown and often reddish, ripen in late spring and early summer.
Twig: Reddish and lustrous with small lenticels, buds usually blunt, green or reddish (fall and winter) with several loose scales usually present, leaf scars V-shaped, 3 bundle scars, lateral buds slightly stalked, may be collateral buds present.
Bark: On young trees, smooth and light gray, with age becomes darker and breaks up into long, fine scaly plates.
Form: Medium sized tree up to 90 feet. In forest, trunk usually clear for some distance, in the open the trunk is shorter and the crown rounded.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - sugar maple

sugar maple Aceraceae Acer saccharum

Leaf: Opposite, simple and palmately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, 5 delicately rounded lobes, entire margin; green above, paler below.
Flower: Light yellow-green, small, clustered, hanging from a long, slender (1 to 3 inch) stem, appearing with or slightly before the leaves in early spring.
Fruit: Two-winged horseshoe-shaped samaras about 1 inch long, appearing in clusters, brown when mature in in the fall.
Twig: Brown, slender and shiny with lighter lenticels; terminal buds brown, very sharp pointed, with tight scales.
Bark: Variable, but generally brown, on older trees it becomes darker, develops furrows, with long, thick irregular curling outward, firm ridges.
Form: Medium to tall tree (to 100 feet) with very dense elliptical crown.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - white oak

white oak Fagaceae Quercus alba

Leaf: Alternate, simple, oblong to ovate in shape, 4 to 7 inches long; 7 to 10 rounded, finger-like lobes, sinus depth varies from deep to shallow, apex is rounded and the base is wedge-shaped, green to blue-green above and whitish below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; male flowers are yellow-green, borne in naked, slender catkins, 2 to 4 inches long; female flowers are reddish green and appear as very small single spikes; appearing with the leaves in mid-spring.
Fruit: Ovoid to oblong acorn, cap is warty and bowl-shaped, covers 1/4 of the fruit; cap always detaches at maturity; matures in one growing season in the early fall.
Twig: Red-brown to somewhat gray, even a bit purple at times, hairless and often shiny; multiple terminal buds are red-brown, small, rounded (globose) and hairless.
Bark: Whitish or ashy gray, varying from scaly on smaller stems to irregularly platy or blocky on large stems. On older trees smooth patches are not uncommon.
Form: A very large tree; when open grown, white oaks have rugged, irregular crowns that are wide spreading, with a stocky bole. In the forest crowns are upright and oval with trees reaching up to 100 feet tall and several feet in diameter.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - American sycamore

American sycamore Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis

Leaf: Alternate, simple, palmately veined, 4 to 8 inches wide, ovate in shape, with three to five lobes, margins coarsely toothed, petiole bases encircle and enclose the buds, veins may be pubescent below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; imperfect, both male and females are very small and appear in dense round clusters, typically a single cluster to a stalk, appearing with the leaves.
Fruit: A spherical multiple of achenes borne on a 3 to 6 inch stalk. Each seed is tiny, winged, and 1/2 inch long; maturing in November, disseminating in late winter.
Twig: Obviously zigzag, quite stout and orange-brown in color; leaf scar surrounds the bud and the stipule scar surrounds the twig; terminal bud is absent; lateral buds are reddish, resinous, with a single, cap-like scale.
Bark: Thin, mottled brown, green, tan and white; older stems are gray-brown and scaly. The most striking feature of this tree, often referred to as "camouflage" bark that readily exfoliates.
Form: A very massive tree with heavy, spreading branches with obviously zigzag twigs reaching up to and over 100 feet tall. In winter, the persistent fruits resemble Christmas tree ornaments.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - flowering dogwood

flowering dogwood Cornaceae Cornus florida

Leaf: Opposite, simple, 3 to 5 inches long, oval in shape with an entire or slightly wavy margin, arcuately veined, green above and slightly paler below.
Flower: Species is monoecious; very small and inconspicuous tight cluster, but surrounded by 4 very showy, large, white (occasionally pink) bracts, 2 inches in diameter, appearing in mid-spring.
Fruit: A shiny, oval red drupe, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, in clusters of 3 to 5, maturing in fall.
Twig: Slender, green or purple (purple on sunlit side), later turning gray, often with a glaucous bloom. The terminal flower buds are clove-shaped, vegetative buds resemble a dull cat claw.
Bark: Gray and smooth when young, turning very scaly to finely blocky.
Form: A small tree with a short trunk that branches low, producing a slightly rounded to flat-topped crown. Branches are opposite, and assume a "candelabra" appearance.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - green ash

green ash Oleaceae Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Leaf: Opposite, pinnately compound with 7 to 9 serrate leaflets that are lanceolate to elliptical in shape, entire leaf is 6 to 9 inches long, green above and glabrous to silky-pubescent below.
Flower: Species is dioecious; light green to purplish, both sexes lacking petals, females occuring in loose panicles, males in tighter clusters, appear after the leaves unfold.
Fruit: A single-winged, dry, flattened samara with a slender, thin seed cavity, maturing in autumn and dispersing over winter.
Twig: Stout to medium texture, gray to green-brown and either glabrous or pubescent, depending on variety; leaf scars are semicircular to flat across the top, with lateral buds sitting on top of leaf scar (not down in a in notch as with white ash).
Bark: Ashy gray to brown in color, with interlacing corky ridges forming obvious diamonds; older trees may be somewhat scaly.
Form: A medium sized tree to 70 feet tall with a poorly formed bole and an irregular to round crown.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - black cherry

black cherry Rosaceae Prunus serotina

Leaf: Alternate, simple, 2 to 5 inches long, oblong to lance-shaped, finely serrated, very small inconspicuous glands on petiole, dark green and lustrous above, paler below; usually with a dense yellowish-brown, sometimes white pubescence along mid-rib.
Flower: Small white flowers in hanging, narrow clusters 4 to 6 inches long, appearing in late spring.
Fruit: Dark purple round drupe, almost black when ripe, 1/3 inch in diameter with a bitter-sweet taste; matures in late summer.
Twig: Slender, reddish brown, sometimes covered in gray epidermis, pronounced bitter almond odor and taste; buds are very small (1/5 inch),covered in several glossy, reddish brown to greenish scales; leaf scars are small and semicircular with 3 bundle scars.
Bark: Smooth with numerous short, narrow, horizontal lenticels when young; becomes very dark (nearly black), breaking up into small, rough, irregular, upturned plates (burnt corn flakes), when older.
Form: Medium sized tree which (on good sites) develops a long, straight, clear bole and can reach heights approaching 100 feet.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - white fir

white fir Pinaceae Abies concolor

Leaf: Flattened needles, silvery blue-green both above and below, 2 to 3 inches long, blunt at the tip, extending at right angles from the twig, often curving upwards. A citrus smell is present when the needle is broken. White bloom may be distributed evenly or may occur in distinct bands on both surfaces.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males yellow- to red-toned, catkin-like; females inconspicuous, yellow-brown.
Fruit: Cones are upright, 3 to 5 1/2 inches long, oblong, yellow-green to purple, with erose shoulders; deciduous at maturity with seed dispersal in fall.
Twig: Twigs are dark orange at first, becoming gray-green, then gray. Leaf scars are circular.
Bark: Thin, smooth and gray on young trees, with resin pockets. On old trees, thick, ashy gray with deep, irregular furrows.
Form: Young trees are conical. Older trees develop a dome-like crown.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - Norway spruce

Norway spruce Pinaceae Picea abies

Leaf: Evergreen needles, stiff, 1/2 to 1 inch long, 4-angled but somewhat flattened, with a sharp pointed tip, shiny deep green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males yellow-brown in large groups; females upright, purple.
Fruit: Cones are very large, cylindrical, 4 to 6 inches long, with stiff, thin scales that are irregularly toothed, chestnut brown, maturing in fall.
Twig: Slender to medium in size, lacking hair, shiny orangish brown; needles are borne on woody pegs; buds with very loose, orange-brown scales (resembles a rose).
Bark: Red-brown and scaly, later turning gray with flaking scales or plates.
Form: A medium to large tree with conical form capable of reaching over 120 feet tall, with horizontal to upward sweeping branches that often droop branchlets.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - white spruce

white spruce Pinaceae Picea glauca

Leaf: Evergreen needles, stiff, 1/3 to 3/4 inch long, square in cross section, needle tips are pointed but not sharp, when crushed a pungent odor is apparent (some say similar to cat urine), green to gray-green. Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males emerge reddish but turn yellow when shedding pollen; females purple.
Fruit: Cones are 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long, cigar shaped, light brown in color, scales are rounded with entire margins, mature in late summer.
Twig: Slender, light brown or pale, sometimes glaucous, hairless. Needles borne on woody pegs.
Bark: Thin, gray-brown in color, smooth, later flaky or scaly.
Form: Conical, medium sized trees reaching up to 90 feet tall.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - eastern white pine

eastern white pine Pinaceae Pinus strobus

Leaf: Evergreen needles, 3 to 5 inches long, with five, slender, flexible needles per fascicle; fascicle sheath deciduous, needles appear blue-green because of 3 or more glaucous lines of stomata.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, yellow, in clusters near branch tips; females light green, tinged in red, at ends of branches.
Fruit: Cones are 4 to 7 inches long, cylindrical, with thick, rounded cone scales, very resinous, borne on a long stalk and maturing in late summer.
Twig: Slender, gray-green to orange-brown in color; buds long, ovoid, reddish brown.
Bark: On young trees, thin, smooth and gray-green with some lighter splotty patches; later becoming thick, reddish brown to gray-brown with prominent finely scaly, rounded, long ridges and darker furrows.
Form: A large tree with a very straight trunk often reaching well over 100 feet in height. The crown is conical when young, later developing wispy, horizontal, upturning branches.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map

VT Dendro I.D. Cards - poison-ivy

poison-ivy Anacardiaceae Toxicodendron radicans

Leaf: Alternate, trifoliate, 7 to 10 inches long, leaflets are ovate and irregularly toothed, shiny green above, paler below. TOXIC.
Flower: Species is monoecious; small, yellowish green, appearing in clusters, present late spring to early summer. TOXIC.
Fruit: Greenish white, round, 1/4 inch in diameter, borne in a hanging cluster, ripe in late summer and persist through winter. TOXIC.
Twig: Slender, gray- to red-brown, sparingly pubescent or glabrous, slender aerial roots present and older growth becomes densely covered and "hairy" in appearance; buds are stalked, naked, fuzzy brown, 1/4 inch long. TOXIC.
Bark: Dark gray, densely covered in aerial roots. TOXIC.
Form: May be present as a low (6 to 18 inches), spreading "carpet" on the forest floor, as a climbing vine, or as a bush.
leaf flower fruit twig bark form map