American elm Ulmaceae Ulmus americana
Leaf:Alternate, simple, ovate to oblong, 3 to 5 inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide, margin coarsely and sharply doubly serrate, base conspicuously inequilateral, upper surface green and glabrous or slightly scabrous, paler and downy beneath.
Flower:Species is monoecious; small, in drooping clusters of 3 to 5, appear in early spring before leaf buds open.
Fruit:Rounded, flat, pappery, wafer-like samaras, 3/8 to 1/2 inch across, deeply notched at apex, hairless except for margin; ripen in spring.
Twig:Slender, glabrous, slightly zigzag, reddish brown; buds ovate, over 1/4 inch long, reddish brown with darker edged scales, often placed a little to one side of the twig.
Bark:Dark, ashy gray, flat-topped ridges separated by diamond-shaped fissures; outer bark when sectioned shows distinct, alternating, buff colored and reddish brown patches. When young it is often quite spongy.
Form:In the open, the trunk is usually divided into several large, ascending and arching limbs, ending in a maze of graceful drooping branchlets.