European black alder Betulaceae Alnus glutinosa
Leaf:Alternate, simple, oval to orbicular, 2 to 4 inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide, rounded or slightly notched tip, doubly serrate margin, dark green above, lighter below with some scruffy pubescence in vein axils.
Flower:Species is monoecious; males slender, reddish-brown catkins (1 to 1 1/2 inch long), much longer when shedding pollen; females small (1/6 inch) reddish-brown, cone-like catkins in clusters near branch tips.
Fruit:Cone-like woody catkin, initially green, turning brown when ripe, 3/4 inch long, egg-shaped, contain many small winged nutlets, persistent through winter.
Twig:Green and sticky when young, later turning greenish brown; buds are stalked, purplish brown in color and somewhat three sided.
Bark:Initially smooth and grayish green, later turning grayish brown and developing irregular, small broken patches.
Form:Medium tree with a very narrow, upright crown; in its native habitat it reaches 80 feet tall and several feet in diameter; rarely get very large in North America.