shortleaf pine Pinaceae Pinus echinata
Leaf:Evergreen needles, 3 to 5 inches long, two or three (on the same branch), slender and flexible needles per fascicle, dark yellow-green in color, fascicle sheath is persistent.
Flower:Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, red to yellow, in clumps at ends of twigs; females light green to red and armed.
Fruit:Egg-shaped cone, 2 inches long, somewhat persistent; red to brown in color, umbo is armed with a small prickle, maturing in fall; scales stay relatively flexible.
Twig:Green and purple when young, later turning red-brown.
Bark:Scaly and dark on young trees, eventually developing flat, scaly plates; very small (pencil point) resin pockets or "Volcanoes" may be apparent.
Form:A medium to large tree with a straight, well pruned trunk, able to reach over 100 feet tall; typically has a small, open, pyramidal crown.