| Leaf: Evergreen needles, 4 to 6 inches long in fascicles of 2, stout, twisted, dull blue-green (northern populations) or yellow-green (southern populations).
Flower: Species is monoecious; males cylindrical, purple, in tight clusters at branch tips; females, reddish purple in groups of 3 or 4 at branch tips.
Fruit: Woody cone, 2 to 3 inches long, egg-shaped, assymetrical with thick spiny scales, often serotinous, clustered in rings around the branches and persistent for many years.
Twig: Moderately stout, reddish brown; buds large and reddish brown.
Bark: Initially smooth, reddish-gray, later becoming more gray and developing rounded, scaly ridges and becoming quite thick.
Form: Rounded crown with stout branches reaching 40 to 70 feet in height, often with a crooked single trunk.
Looks like: knobcone pine
- ponderosa pine
- lodgepole pine
- Monterey pine